Monday, February 10, 2020

Development and environment Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Development and environment - Research Paper Example Development and environment are related. The world is developing rapidly. More buildings and industries are coming up. Modern technologies are also being developed each passing day. All these have an effect on the environment. Lack of proper planning during development ventures can lead to environmental degradation. Disasters have been a major setback to development. Disasters are natural and cannot be prevented but their effects can be reduced through disaster risk reduction approach in coming up with development policies. If this is done, more vulnerable people will be empowered to develop and more resources will be availed for development projects rather than providing relief during disasters. This paper deals with two issues, first is the impact of development on environment and second is the importance of disaster risk reduction in developmental policies. Impact of development on environment Deforestation Development has greatly resulted in reduction of forest cover. As more res idential and industrial buildings are developed forests are cut so as to give room for these buildings. Technological development has also led to invention of tools that can bring down forests very fast. One such example is the power saw that can easily be used to cut trees. Warfare has also been the cause of deforestation. There have been developments of weapons of mass destruction such as bombs. Chemicals also used during war time can greatly reduce the forest cover. These chemicals can impair the physiological functioning of trees leading to their drying. When these technologies are harnessed in warfare they can lead to massive reduction of forest cover. It is approximated that in Vietnam, bombing caused a destruction of about 22,000 square kilometres of forests (Mai and Nguyen 2). The investment in shrimp aquaculture has also led to destruction of mangrove forests in several countries. Over the years, forest cover has inversely been related to development. As more buildings and more advanced technologies are invented, the forest cover has come under great threat. Water Pollution Development has led to many industries that discharge their effluents into rivers, canals, rice fields and lakes. These untreated effluents from industrial and municipal discharges have caused degradation of water sources. The discharge of organic and nutrient wastes into the rivers has led to an increase of (biological oxygen demand) BOD in rivers. This is because these wastes are decomposable and require oxygen during disintegration. Lack of sufficient oxygen would lead to anaerobic decomposition accompanied by foul smells. Waste water also contains chemicals such as PCBs and Organochlorine pesticides. Agriculture and flood control activities have also led to water pollution. With technological development, almost all farming is done using fertilizers. These fertilizers are washed away into rivers, lakes, and ocean. The fertilizers contain chemicals that if they accumulate into w ater bodies, they are harmful to human, animal, and aquatic life. The advance in flood mitigation methods has also led to accumulation of arsenic in ground water in India and Bangladesh. Chemical pollution Failure to properly use pesticides, chemicals for agricultural, industrial, and fighting diseases has led to chemical pollution across the globe. These chemicals may contain organic compounds that are persistent such as PCBs, DDT, furans, hexachlorobenzene and dioxins. Polychlorinated biphenyls are used in some capacitors and transformers, paint additives, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids and lubrication oil. A portion of the contaminated oil may be released into the environment resulting into pollution. DDT was extensively used to combat malaria before its ban in 1992. This chemical was sprayed in homesteads in order to eradicate mosquitoes. The technology was very efficient in eradicating mosquitoes but it had long term side effect. DDT is a persistent chemical and when

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